These rocket launchers were used extensively throughout the war and were known for the powerful punch they packed. Technically designated as Multiple Launch Rocket Systems MLRSthese were available at a fraction of the cost of an artillery gun and could literally rain hell down on the enemy in a few seconds. The Soviets mastered the balance between firepower, mobility, accuracy and cost effectiveness while designing this system, which was instrumental in making it world-famous.
Initial large-scale testing began by the end ofwhere it failed to impress the Soviet artillery branch due to its many drawbacks.
They were then rectified, and inthe Katyusha was authorized to be produced in limited numbers. You must be wondering about the name of the rocket launcher and why it was called Katyusha. This has a very unique story behind it. The existence of this weapon was a secret until after the war. So during the war, it was marked with the letter K, after the factory were it was being manufactured and were named as Kostikov guns to hide their true identity.
The name Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of the name Katie and it stuck to the rocket launcher ever since. It also made a loud howling sound when it was being fired and the layout of the rockets on the launcher resembled that of a church organ.
The weapon was so secretive that only special NKVD state police personnel and trusted party members were trained and permitted to operate it. But as it entered mass production, the restrictions were lifted and the weapon was available to the regular Soviet army troops.
A smaller rocket, the 82 mm M-8 was also used. Initially, the Ms were fitted only with HE warheads and used against enemy troop formations. But as the war progressed and the launchers proved themselves, the rockets were fitted with Armour Piercing AP warheads to be fired against incoming tank formations. Smoke, marking and illumination rounds were also developed to complement the HE and AP ones. The Ms were however limited to only HE warheads. When fired in salvos of over a hundred rockets, they managed to inflict maximum physical and psychological damage on the enemy troops.
But, both these rockets were highly inaccurate and had an effect only when used in large quantities over a target which was spread out. But as the war progressed, they were mounted on a variety of platforms including rail cars, tank chassis and boats.
Thousands of trucks received from the US as a part of lend-lease were concerted into carriers for the Katyusha launcher. The Katyusha made its combat debut in when the Germans suddenly invaded the Soviet Union. This was not a good time for deploying the Katyusha as the only existing battery had 4 days of training and mass production facilities were just being set up. Nevertheless, the first battery, made up of 7 BM launchers and M rockets, was sent to the front in 44 trucks.
This was a time when the existence of the Katyusha was a secret, so every possible precaution was taken to hide the launchers until they were fired in combat. On 7th Julythe first battery went into action and showered its lethal projectiles onto an incoming formation of German troops, near the river Berezina. The German soldiers panicked as the deluge of high explosives rained on them and the steel fragmentation from the rockets added to the injuries and confusion.
The screaming sound made by these rockets was enough to demoralize battle hardened and new recruits alike. This battery saw further action and performed according to expectations.History, development, service, specifications, pictures and 3D models.
The first self-propelled artillery weapons produced in quantity in Russia were not guns at all but novel rocket weapons. A design team under I. Gvay developed a rail launcher firing the modified M rocket over the side of a ZiS-5 lorry.
The mounting proved unstable during firing, leading to a second prototype called the MU-1 Mechanized Assembly This was also a failure, which prompted V. Galkovskiy to propose that the rockets be fired longitudinally on the chassis. Field tests with a variety of different rocket types were conducted throughoutwith the GAU finally approving the vehicle as the BM Combat Vehicle for M rockets with sixteen launch railsbut only 40 were completed before the war started.
The new weapon was guarded with the greatest secrecy and at the outbreak of the war a special unit was formed under NKVD direction. The first battery Katyushas went into action near the Orsha railway station on 7 July and proved an immediate success.
The GAU was duly impressed, and ordered production to begin on a crash basis. The rocket launchers were still so highly classified that they received a variety of bogus names such as Kostikov guns, etc.
Eventually they were officially designated Guards Mortars, but the name which stuck was the popular nickname, Katyushathe diminutive form of the name Katerina, after the Isakovskiy tune of the same name, popular in Russia at the time.
BM launcher on the STZ-5 artillery tractor. Although originally lorry mounted, attempts were made in to develop other carriages for better cross-country performance.
Katyusha rocket launcher
There was also a version mounted on the KV tankthe KV-1K, but this was not produced in any quantity as it wasted a perfectly good heavy tank in a role easily satisfied by a less expensive carriage.
In Augusta second type of Katyusha rocket was developed, the M-8 82mm rocket which was smaller and had shorter range. These were mounted on lorries as the BMor on turret less tank chassis, such as the T and T, as the BM Inthe Soviets developed a version of the M Katyusha rocket with a larger, bulbous warhead, the M Unlike the other two types, the M was not fired from a self-propelled launcher, but from rama frame launchers.
Self-propelled versions, the BM, were not fielded until The main attraction of the Katyusha launcher was that it was cheap to manufacture and could be turned out by small factories without the elaborate machine tools needed for conventional tubed artillery. A BM salve dropped 4. Although not so accurate as conventional artillery, this rocket launcher was much more feared by German soldiers than conventional artillery. The majority of the Army launchers were self-propelled.
The rockets could be salvoed in series, or fired individually. However, it was also mounted on larger vehicles with more rails, such as the BM on the Studebaker US6.Although these devices lack precision, their sheer number make them effective weapons of terror.
According to Israeli sources, Hezbollah held around 15, rockets and missiles on the eve of the Lebanon War, firing nearly 4, at Israel over the day conflict. Hezbollah has since expanded its rocket arsenal, today estimated atThis forces Israel to rely more heavily on ground forces in a conflict.
As Human Rights Watch notes, however, these arguments do not justify civilian targeting and casualties under international law. According to Saudi and UAE officials, Hezbollah militants have worked with their Houthi forces in rocket development and launch divisions. It was originally fitted for the Soviet BM MRL, and has a range of approximately 20 km while carrying 6 kg of HE or submunitions, both dispersing anti-personnel fragments. The rocket may be fired through simple tripod launchers or from truck-based MRLs, and is accurate within a m x m space.
RS-82 (rocket family)
These assets enable Hezbollah to fire salvos of Katyushas into Israel, although the Party largely continues to carry out attacks single shot attacks to maximize media attention. China sold the mm rockets to Syria and a reported units to Iran. Iran subsequently developed indigenous copies of the rocket renaming it Fajr-1 and the MRL renaming it Haseb. Iran is reported to have supplied Hezbollah with approximately Haseb-type launchers and an unknown number of accompanying rockets.
Different models vary between 0. The rockets may be manually ground-launched or fired through the Haseb-type launchers acquired from Iran. The Haseb MRL holds 12 rounds three rows of four cells and weighs about kg.
They are sometimes identified as Falagh. The Falaq-1 has a range of km while carrying a 50 kg high explosive HE warhead. The rocket has a length of 1. A man-portable variant exists. It has a fragmentation radius of around m. Hezbollah subsequently launched several Falaq rockets against Israel during the Second Lebanon War. It has a range of 13 km while carrying a kg high explosive HE warhead. The rocket has a length of 2.
It is not known how Hezbollah obtained them, but the Party fired approximately Type rockets during the Lebanon War. It has a range of The Victory Day celebrations. BM Katyusha multiple rocket launchers rolling in Red Square. June 24, Katyusha was presented to highest Soviet officials right before the war. Initially, the device — a few projectiles mounted on a simple truck — did not impress them much.
But when it fired a round they were all stunned. Just hours before the war Joseph Stalin greenlighted its mass production. The new weapon was a top-secret development. Every Katyusha was fitted with an explosive device so the weapon could be destroyed before the Germans had a chance to capture it.
The official name of the weapon was BM, BM stood for fighting machine and 13 referred to the caliber of missiles. Orsha was a huge transportation hub that had already been taken by the Wehrmacht. There were a lot of troops and ammunition concentrated there. In its first use the Katyusha exceeded all expectations of Soviet military leaders — the hub was devastated. Rocket launchers bombarded the area and quickly left. A firestorm of shells burned the railway station of Orsha, all troops and military hardware.
Metal was melting and soil was burning. Fire power of such salvo was comparable to that one of 70 heavy artillery guns combined.Guards Mortar "Katyusha" Rocket Launcher
However, unlike the traditional artillery, BMs were mobile and could move quickly between firing spots. It made them hard to track down. Powerful and fast, they were ideal for the Katyushas. Katyushas' units were able to deliver several tones of explosions in just a few seconds to cover an extensive area. After the weapons proved its efficiency in combat, multiple new units of the rocket launchers were formed and sent to the front.
Then his unit was encircled in the city of Vyazma km west of Moscow. Soldiers fired all of their missiles and blew up the machines. The Germans did not manage to take either equipment or personal as the unit fought until the last soldier was dead - as a result Captain Flerov war praised posthumously. The Germans were eager to get familiar with the new Russian weapon but for a long time they could not get their hands on it.
They say that the Germans were so eager to get the weapon that the famous Nazi commando Otto Skorzeny was entrusted with this task. They say that the thing the Germans failed to develop was special powder that was used in Soviet missiles.
It left no trace and provided the missile with a stable and long flight.Type 63 mm Multiple rocket launcher system. General Information. Technical Data. Details View. Partner TV Web Television pictures. Army Web TV pictures. Milipol Web TV - Pictures. Partner pictures - video.
TADTE pictures - video gallery. Ferret Simba. Fateh Sayyad Artillery Vehicles Tanks Wheeled Vehicles. Bradley M Chaiseri Defense First Win 4x4 armoured. Austria Hirtenberger Defence Systems. AAD Automatic activation device. EC Caracal helicopter. Spynel Series. Geroh Rotzler Welp Armouring. HIZIR 4x4. Type 63 mm multiple rocket launcher system data sheet specifications information description UK Posted On Monday, 04 April The Type 63 is a towed, tube, mm multiple rocket launcher system produced in China in the early s, based on the Soviet BM MRS and using similar rockets.First test-firing was done in November Inaerodynamically efficient RO rail launchers were designed for mounting these weapons on aircraft.
A group of Polikarpov I fighters under command of Captain N. Zvonarev were using RS rockets against Japanese aircraft, shooting down 16 fighters and 3 bombers in total. RS officially entered service in and RS in Like most unguided rockets, RS suffered from poor accuracy.
RS accuracy was even worse, with no hits scored in firings during one test. Combat accuracy was even worse, since the rockets were typically fired from even greater distances. To further complicate the matters, RS required a direct hit to disable light German armor, with near-misses causing no damage.
RS could defeat medium German armor with a direct hit but caused almost no damage to light or medium armor with a near-miss. Best results were usually attained when firing in salvos against large ground targets.
Some Ilyushin Il-2 were field-modified to carry up to 24 rockets although the added drag and the weight made this arrangement impractical. RS-derived M-8 and M rockets were used by the famous Katyusha rocket artillery. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Polikarpov I, I and I Aces. Osprey Publishing.
Russian and former Soviet military designation sequences for radar, missile and rocket systems. R RSD Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with Russian-language sources ru.
Credit: Image from the Public Domain. Once the tactical usefulness of the vehicles as direct-combat tanks was over and eventually replaced by the arrival of the T Medium Tank lineand to shore up stocks of rocket-projecting platforms, the tank hulls were selected for quick conversion in which their hulls, drivetrain, and general design remained unchanged and rocket launching hardware was added over the hull in place of the standard turret and its applicable main gun armament.
The Soviets went on to heavily favor rocket launcher carriers throughout the war in their march to Berlin and this was exemplified best by the classic "Katyusha" 6x6 wheeled trucks in the role. Reuse of the light tank chassis simply made the weapon system a tracked variant and, logistically, a very sound solution in both terms of manufacturing cost and availability. Additionally, performance specifications could remain largely unchanged, providing the needed cross-country, mechanized travel capability inherent in the compact tank designs when keeping up with the main fighting force.
The 82mm rockets used in the vehicles were officially designated as "BM-8" and they were adopted in August of The T and T light tanks converted for the rocket projecting role were then designated collectively as "BM". The "BM" in their designation marked them as ground-based, rocket projecting vehicles while the "8" marked the model of rocket in use "BM-8".
While not wholly accurate individually, the rockets generated tremendous saturation effect on a target area, particularly if multiple vehicles were used in launching several salvos.
Not only were they a damaging component to infantry, dug in forces, and light vehicles, they provided a detrimental psychological effect on the receiver. Projectors could be used in unison with artillery support prior to a major offensive to help "soften up" enemy positions. Conversions of T tanks to rocket launcher carriers were handled from July to September of at the Kompressor plant in Moscow and some forty-four vehicles were converted for the role.
Ts were also converted during Year: Crew 2. Manufacturing State Factories - Soviet Union. Production Units. Soviet Union. Length: Height: 5. Weight: 6 tons 5, kg; 12, lb. Showcased structural values pertain to the BM Katyusha production model. Showcased powerplant information pertains to the BM Katyusha production model.
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